Research & Publications


50 years of the ‘twin engine’

The Elysée Treaty signed in 1963 created a framework for structured cooperation between France and Germany further cementing the reconciliation process between the two that had begun with the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952.

This Background Brief “50 years of the twin engine: Franco-German reconciliation, European integration and reflections for Asia” seeks to outline the contours of the historic act of Franco-German reconciliation and its consequences ever since, and provides some reflections on the applicability of the European integration and reconciliation processes to East Asia.

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